Science Study Resources PSLE: Life cycle

Looking for PSLE Science study resources and guide? Fret not, in this science study resources, Tutopiya will explore the life cycle of animals and plants with clear mind maps, visuals and tables to help you better understand this topic!

The life cycle of plants

Let’s understand why plants are essential in our life before we proceed to learn more about them.


Now that you know why plants are so vital for our survival, we are ready to move on.

For humans, we need food to have energy, and food is provided to us by either plants or animals. But do plants produce food?

Well, they make food in the process called Photosynthesis.


The meaning of photosynthesis is to build up food using light energy. The word comes from two separate words; photo and synthesis. 

Photo means light and synthesis means to make something

Therefore it can be interpreted that plants produce food using light energy.

The leaves take water and carbon dioxide gas from the air and use the energy from sunlight to make food in the form of glucose sugar, and starch. We call this process photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is a chemical reaction that takes place in green leaves.


Oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2)

During photosynthesis, plants give out oxygen gas. All the oxygen in the air comes

from photosynthesis.

People and animals need oxygen so that we can breathe. We cannot live without plants and photosynthesis. We breathe out carbon dioxide, which is poisonous to us.

But plants use it up again during photosynthesis.

Plants are the only organisms that can make their own food. Plants are the only organisms that can absorb light energy from the sun and convert it into chemical energy in the form of glucose. Then the glucose can be used by animals.


Here is a mind map that shows you an overview of PLANTS.

Mind map credits to Biggerplate

The life cycle of animals

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There are different classification of animals. Refer to the classification chart above to take a look at how each animal group differ from each other.

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Mind map credits to Biggerplate

Here is a mind map on animals. It shows you the different classifications of animals. Similar to the flowchart above, but this breaks down and compares the different types of animals.



How about the plant and animal organism cells?


Let’s compare!

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Definition of each part are as follows:

Cell membrane

It is the outer lining of the cell which encloses all other cell organelles. The cell membrane also known as the plasma membrane is semipermeable. It allows only specific molecules to pass through and blocking others.

Cell wall

The cell wall is a rigid layer that surrounds the plant cells. Plant cell walls are primarily made up of cellulose. It is located outside the cell membrane whose main function is to provide rigidity, strength, protection against mechanical stress and infection.


 It is the fluid substance that fills the cell. All the cell organelles are suspended in the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm maintains the osmotic concentration of the cells and prevents them from bursting or shrinking.


It is a membrane-bound organelle, spherical in shape. Most of the activities of the cell is directed by the nucleus.

All the cells in an animal have one complete set of genes in its nucleus. The genetic material DNA help in protein formation


It is an elongated or disc-shaped organelle containing chlorophyll. It is the site for photosynthesis in a plant cell. The green pigment chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight.

The difference between animal and plant cell is that, animal cells do not have Chloroplasts and Cell wall. This is a clear distinction between which cell is which.

You can also refer to the table below. Where P = Present and A = Absent


Plant Animal
Nucleus P P
Cell membrane P P
Cytoplasm P P
Cell wall P A
Chloroplast P A


The life cycle of animals and plants are fascinating and fun to learn. Try to take learning outdoors and be engaged. Science is a subject that is logical and fun to learn.

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Preparing for PSLE Science? Tutopiya discusses the common mistakes made by PSLE Science students as well as providing tips to study science better! Click here to read more!  

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